Cummings is survived by his wife, Maya Rockeymoore Cummings, and their three children.
As chairman of the House Oversight and Reform Committee, Cummings led multiple investigations of the U.S. president's governmental dealings, including probes in 2019 relating to the president's family members serving in the White House.
In 2017, before he became Oversight Committee chairman, Cummings even requested a meeting with President Trump to discuss drug prices, a signature campaign issue during the president's campaign the year prior.
Cummings' investigations drew Trump's ire over the summer after his committee issued subpoenas to White House officials, including Trump's daughter Ivanka Trump and son-in-law, Jared Kushner, in a probe of government record-keeping.
A key figure in the Trump impeachment inquiry, Cummings had hoped to return to Congress within about a week after a medical procedure for which he didn't offer details.
Cummings' replacement as chairman will be decided in the coming days, largely by House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. One day, he was cut by a bottle thrown from an angry crowd.
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Cummings had represented Maryland's 7th Congressional District since 1996.
President Trump praised Cummings' "strength, passion and wisdom" in a tweet, despite the insults he hurled at Cummings this summer.
"Former HU student body president, Cummings was also among the highest-ranking Howard graduates to serve in public office in American political history", the Howard University Department of Political Science wrote on Twitter.
Cummings eventually saw that other side of Trump - the one who called the longtime Baltimore-area congressman a "brutal bully" and his district a "disgusting, rat and rodent infested mess". "We in the 43rd District, Baltimore City, Maryland and worldwide have been blessed to count on him as a friend and mentor".
Cummings has been one of the most prominent and central House Democrats leading oversight and investigative efforts into the President and his administration following the Democratic takeover of the House majority after the 2018 midterm elections. A man who attentively listened to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. speak on the radio, Cummings was highly regarded for his dedication to civil rights. Elijah Cummings' life and leadership stand as a shining example of the values we hold most dear.
Born in Baltimore, Cummings' roots were in SC, where his sharecropper parents lived before moving the family to Maryland.